什么是transferred epithet????????

TAENAN? TAENAN?
回答
  • 萌萌哒 萌萌哒

    一种修辞手法:移就.
    下面介绍一些英语作文中常用的修辞手法。1.比喻(metaphor)
    比喻就是打比方。可分为明喻和暗喻:
    明喻(simile):
    用like,as,as.as,as if(though)或用其他词语指出两个不同事物的相似之处。例如:
    o my love's like a red,red rose.我的爱人像一朵红红的玫瑰花。the man can't be trusted.he ** as slippery as an eel.那个人不可信赖。他像鳗鱼一样狡猾。he jumped as if he had been stung.他像被蜇了似的跳了起来。childhood ** like a swiftly passing dream.童年就像一场疾逝的梦。暗喻(metaphor):
    用一个词来指代与该词所指事物有相似特点的另外一个事物。例如:
    he has a heart of stone.他有一颗铁石心肠。the world ** a stage.世界是一个大舞台。2.换喻(metonymy)
    用某一事物的名称代替另外一个与它关系密切的事物的名称,只要一提到其中一种事物,就会使人联想到另一种。比如用the white house 代替美国**或者**,用the bottle来代替wine 或者alcohol,用the bar 来代替the legal profession,用 crown代替 king等。例如:
    h** purse would not allow him that luxury.他的经济条件不允许他享受那种奢华。the mother did her best to take care of the cradle.母亲尽最大努力照看孩子。he succeeded to the crown in 1848.他在1848年继承了王位。3.提喻(synecdoche)
    指用部分代表整体或者用整体代表部分,以特殊代表一般或者用一般代表特殊。例如:
    he earns h** bread by writing.他靠写作挣钱谋生。the farms were short of hands during the harvest season.在收获季节里农场缺乏劳动力。australia beat canada at cricket.澳大利亚队在板球比赛中击败了加拿大队。he ** the newton of th** century.他是这个世纪的牛顿。4.拟人(personification)
    把事物或者概念当作人或者具备人的品质的写法叫拟人。例如:
    my heart was singing.我的心在歌唱。th** time fate was smiling to him.这一次命运朝他微笑了。the flowers nodded to her while she passed.当她经过的时候花儿向她点头致意。the wind wh**tled through the trees.风穿过树丛,树叶哗哗作响。5.委婉(euphem**m)
    用温和的、间接的词语代替生硬的、粗俗的词语,以免直接说出不愉快的事实冒犯别人或者造成令人窘迫、沮丧的局面。例如:
    用to fall asleep;to cease thinking;to pass away;to go to he**en;to le**e us 代替 to die
    用senior citizens代替old people
    用 a slow learner或者an under achiever代替a stupid pupil
    用weight watcher代替 fat people
    用mental hospital 代替 madhouse或者 asylum
    用emotionally d**turbed代替mad
    用washroom,men's/women's room代替 l**atory
    用 handicapped代替 crippled
    用low income brackets;underprivileged;d**advantaged 代替 poor people
    6.双关(pun)
    用同音异义或者一词二义来达到诙谐幽默的效果:表面上是一个意思,而实际上却暗含另一个意思,这种暗含的意思才是句子真正的目的所在。例如:
    a cannonball took off h** legs,so he laid down h** arms.(arms可指手臂或者武器)
    一发炮弹打断了他的腿,所以他缴械投降了。“can i try on that gown in the window?asked a would-be customer.
    “certainly not,madam!replied the salesman.我可以试穿一下橱窗里的那件睡袍吗?或者:我可以在橱窗里试穿那件睡袍吗?seven days without water make one weak(week).七天没有水使一个人虚弱。或者:七天没有水就是一周没有水。7.反语(irony)
    使用与真正意义相反的词,正话反说或者反话正说,从对立的角度运用词义来产生特殊的效果。下面就是莎士比亚的戏剧 julius caesar 中的一个运用反语的很好的例子,brutus出于野心刺杀了 caesar,caesar 的好友antony 讥讽brutus 说:
    here,under le**e of brutus and the rest—
    for brutus ** an honorable man;so are they all,all honorable men—
    come i to speak in caesar's funeral.
    he was my friend,faithful and just to me:
    but brutus says he was ambitious;and brutus ** an honorable man.
    在 antony 的话里反复使用 honorable这个词就是一个反语的例子。8.矛盾修饰(oxymoron)
    把相互矛盾的两个词用在一起的修辞方法。它利用词义表面的相互矛盾使表层的不和谐统一在思想内容的深层,从而揭示事物对立统一的本质特征,达到加深印象的目的。例如:
    she read the long-awaited letter with a tearful smile.她带着含泪的微笑读那封盼望已久的信。the coach had to be cruel to be kind to h** trainees.教练为了对他的受训者仁慈就要对他们残酷。during h** useful life he often felt he was useless.在他大有作为的一生中他老是感到自己无用。其他还有sweet pain;thunderous silence;luxurious poverty;he**y lightness;living death;impossible hope 等等。9.轭式搭配(zeugma)
    把适用于某一事物的词语顺势用到另外一事物上的方法。在同一个句子里一个词可以修饰或者控制两个或更多的词,它可以使语言活泼,富有幽默感。例如:
    she opened the door and her heart to the homeless boy.她对那无家可归的男孩打开了房门,也敞开了胸怀。as i left home after breakfast,i shivered inwardly as well as outwardly.早餐之后我离开家的时候,我的里里外外都在颤抖。i would my horse had the speed of your tongue.我希望我的马能有你的舌头的速度。10.移位修饰(transferred epithet)
    将本应该用来修饰某一类名词的修饰语用来修饰另一类名词。例如:
    there was a short,thoughtful silence.出现了一阵短暂的、令人沉思的寂静。the old man put a reassuring hand on my shoulder.老人把一只令人安心的手放在我的肩膀上。he closed h** busy life at the age of sixty.在六十岁时他结束了他那忙碌的一生。th** ** the cheapest market in th** country.这是这个**最便宜的市场了。11.头韵(alliteration)
    两个或者更多的词以相同的音韵或者字母开头就构成头韵。例如:
    proud as a peacock
    blind as a bat
    safe and sound
    long and loudly little lily laughed.小莉莉长时间地、大声地笑着。the windows w**ed violently in the wind.窗户在风中剧烈地摇动。the sun sank slowly.太阳慢慢地下沉。12.渐进(climax)
    根据事物的逻辑关系,由小到大,由轻到重,由浅到深,由低到高,由少到多依次渐进地进行描述或论述。这种整齐的结构可以使人们的思想认识一层层深化提高,增强语言的感染力和说服力。例如:
    i came;i saw;i conquer.我来了;我看到了;我征服。reading maketh a full man;conference a ready man;and writing an exact man.读书使人充实;交谈使人机智;写作使人精确。some books are to be tasted,others to be swallowed,and some few to be chewed and digested.书有可浅尝者,有可吞咽者,更有少数须消化咀嚼者。lincoln recognized worth in the common people;he loved the common people;he fought for the common people;and he died for the common people.林肯认识到平民大众的价值;他热爱平民大众;他为平民大众而斗争;他为平民大众而献身。

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